Leiam a reportagem de Elias Ulrich, “Uso ritual do Santo Daime é reconhecido pela Suprema Corte nos EUA”, postada dia 21/02/2006 às 19:35 no Centro de Mídia Independente (CMI), em: http://www.midiaindependente.org/pt/blue/2006/02/346275.shtml
I’d like to make a couple of clarifications to the excellent message posted by Elias.
>O veredicto atesta que o grupo religioso está protegido pelo ‘Religious Freedom Restoration Act’, aprovado pelo congresso em 1993, e que foi peça jurídica >fundamental no processo que legalizou o uso ritual do cactus peiote (princípio ativo: mescalina) pela ‘Native American Church’ – congregação que reúne descendentes >de algumas etnias indígenas norte-americanas.
It is true that the 1990 decision that denied constitutional protection to Native American Church peyote use led to both the strongest law protecting the NAC and to RFRA. But it is not true that RFRA had anything to do with legalizing peyote for Indians. The peyote law is the American Indian Religious Freedom Act Amendments (http://www.thecre.com/fedlaw/legal22x/aipaamen.htm ) of 1994. This law allows peyote only for Indians and adopts a narrow definition of Indian as a member of a federally recognized tribe:
“(1) the term `Indian’ means a member of an Indian tribe; (2) the term `Indian tribe’ means any tribe, band, nation, pueblo, or other organized group or community of Indians…which is recognized as eligible for the special programs and services provided by the United States to Indians because of their status as Indians”
It is not yet clear whether RFRA will protect non-federally recognized Indians and non-Indians who belong to the Native American Church or some other peyote-using group.
>Os juízes entretanto consideraram que a exceção concedida ao uso ritual do peiote, que está em vigor desde que o ‘Controlled Substances Act’ foi publicado, não teve >como consequência o abuso ou o uso descontrolado e não ritualístico do sacramento nativo.
Actually the exception for the ritual use of peyote was including in the Drug Abuse Control Amendments of 1965, which first controlled “hallucinogens” at the federal level in the United States; this exception was incorporated in the 1971 Controlled Substances Act. There are, therefore, two peyote exceptions still present in American law, with significant differences between them. For example, the earlier exception exempts from prosecution any members of the Native American Church, without a requirement that they be members of federally recognized tribes (http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/cdrh/cfdocs/cfcfr/CFRSearch.cfm?fr=1307.31 ).
In addition, the reference to the use of peyote by the Native American Church in the UDV Supreme Court decision was less about NAC ritual control of peyote (although this was an important point made in the lower court and in argument before the Supreme Court), and more about the government’s insistence that no Schedule I substance could be used outside of scientific research without great danger:
“If such use is permitted in the face of the congressional findings in §812(b)(1) for hundreds of thousands of Native Americans practicing
their faith, it is difficult to see how those same findings alone can preclude any consideration of a similar exception for the 130 or so American members of the UDV who want to practice theirs” (page 12).
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